Laser Materials Ho:YAG

Laster Material Ho:YAG

General Information

Ho3+ ions doped into insulating laser crystals have exhibited 14 inter-manifold laser channels, operating in temporal modes from CW to mode-locked [1]. Ho:YAG is commonly used as an efficient means to generate 2.1-μm laser emission from the 5I7 - 5I8 transition, for applications such as laser remote sensing, medical surgery, and pumping Mid-IR OPO's to achieve 3-5micron emission. Direct diode pumped systems [2], [3] and Tm: Fiber Laser pumped systems[4] have demonstrated hi slope efficiencies, some approaching the theoretical limit.

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Dopant Ion

Ho3+ concentration range 0.005 - 100 atomic %
Dopant Ion Density @ 1 atomic %
Y3+ Site 1.38 x 1022 cm-3
Al3+Site (IV) 1.38 x 1022 cm-3
Al3+Site (VI) 0.92 x 1022 cm-3

Common Operating Specs

Emission Wavelength 2.01 μm
Laser Transition 5I75I8
Flouresence Lifetime 8.5 ms
Pump Wavelength 1.9 μm

Physical Properties

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 6.14 x 10-6 K-1
Thermal Diffusivity 0.041 cm2 s-2
Thermal Conductivity 11.2 W m-1 K-1
Specific Heat (Cp) 0.59 J g-1 K-1
Thermal Shock Resistant 800 W m-1
Refractive Index @ 632.8 nm 1.83
dn/dT (Thermal Coefficient of Refractive Index) @ 1064nm 7.8 10-6 K-1
Molecular Weight 593.7 g mol-1
Melting Point 1965°C
Density 4.56 g cm-3
MOHS Hardness 8.25
Young’s Modulus 335 Gpa
Tensile Strength 2 Gpa
Crystal Structure Cubic
Standard Orientation <111>
Y3+ Site Symmetry D2
Lattice Constant a=12.013 Å


1)A. A. Kaminskii, "Crystaline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes", CRC Press, (1996), Section 1.4.5, ISBN:0-8493-3720-8

2)Early work on diode pumping of Ho:YAG can be found in: T.Y. Fan, et al., Opt. Lett., 12, 678 (1987) along with R. Allen et al., Electron. Lett., 22, 947 (1986).

3) 3 S. Lamrini, et al., "High-Power Ho:YAG Laser in-Band Pumped by Laser Diodes at 1.9 ?m and avelength-Stabilized by a Volume Bragg Grating" ASSP 2010 Technical Digest, ISBN 978-1-55752-883-4.

4) Xiaodong Mu, et al., "High Efficiency, High Power 2.097-μm Ho:YAG Laser", ASSP 2010 Technical Digest, ISBN 978-1-55752-883-4

Absorption Coefficient Chart

Absorption Coefficient Chart

Data Sheet Downloads

pdf Ho:YAG