Laser Materials Er:YAG

er:yag laser material

General Information

Highly doped (50%) Erbium YAG is a well-known laser source for producing 2940nm emission, commonly used in medical [1] (e.g. cosmetic skin resurfacing), and dental [2] (e.g. oral surgery) applications due to the strong water and hydroxapatite absorption at this wavelength.

Low doped (< 1%) Erbium YAG hase been studied as an efficient means to generate high power and high energy 1.6 micron 'eye-safe' laser emission thru 2 level resonant pumping schemes. In these systems, fiber or diode lasers pump the ~1.5 micron 4I15/2 − > 4I13/2 4I15/2 4I13/2 absorption band, where non-raditive coupling between stark levels allows 1.6 micron laser emission with quantum efficiencies in excess of 90% [3].

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Dopant Ion

Er3+ concentration range 0.1 - 100 atomic %
Dopant Ion Density @ 1 atomic %
Y3+ Site 1.38 x 1022 cm-3
Al3+Site (IV) 1.38 x 1022 cm-3
Al3+Site (VI) 0.92 x 1022 cm-3

Common Operating Specs

  50% Er:YAG Low Doped (0.1% - 1.0%) Er:YAG
Emission Wavelength 2.94 μm 1.6 μm
Laser Transition 4I11/24I13/2 4I13/24I15/2
Flouresence Lifetime 230 μs 2+-5 ms
Pump Wavelength 600-800 nm 1.5 μm

Physical Properties

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 6.14 x 10-6 K-1
Thermal Diffusivity 0.041 cm2 s-2
Thermal Conductivity 11.2 W m-1 K-1
Specific Heat (Cp) 0.59 J g-1 K-1
Thermal Shock Resistant 800 W m-1
Refractive Index @ 632.8 nm 1.83
dn/dT (Thermal Coefficient of Refractive Index) @ 1064nm 7.8 10-6 K-1
Molecular Weight 593.7 g mol-1
Melting Point 1965°C
Density 4.56 g cm-3
MOHS Hardness 8.25
Young’s Modulus 335 Gpa
Tensile Strength 2 Gpa
Crystal Structure Cubic
Standard Orientation <111>
Y3+ Site Symmetry 8D2
Lattice Constant a=12.013 Å


1) 1.Teikemeier G, Goldberg DJ. "Skin resurfacing with the erbium:YAG laser". Dermatol. Surg. 23, 685-687 (1997).

2) 2. Bornstein E. "Proper use of Er:YAG lasers and contact sapphire tips when cutting teeth and bone: scientific principles and clinical application". Dent. Today 23, 84, 86-89; quiz 89

3) 3.S. D. Setzler, et. al., "Resonantly Pumped Eyesafe Erbium Lasers". IEEE Journal of Selected topics in Quantum Electronics 11, 645 (2005).

Absorption Coefficient Chart 50% Er:YAG

er:yag hi chart

Absorption Coefficient Chart Low Doped (0.1% - 1.0%) Er:YAG

er:yag low chart

Data Sheet Downloads

pdf Er:YAG